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THE CITY OF 1 8 <br /> goo -•• 11 <br /> 1 m I CITY COUNCIL AGENDA REPORT <br /> pLEASANTON <br /> November 5, 2019 <br /> Operations Services <br /> TITLE: RECEIVE A PRESENTATION AND PROVIDE DIRECTION REGARDING <br /> CITY'S WATER SYSTEM AND PER- AND POLYFLUOROALKYL <br /> SUBSTANCES (PFAS) <br /> SUMMARY <br /> The City of Pleasanton (City) distributes approximately 4,500 million gallons of treated <br /> water a year to 22,000 customers. Approximately 75% of that distributed water is <br /> sourced from the Zone 7 Water Agency (Zone 7) whose source of water is <br /> approximately 85% surface water and 15% groundwater. The City's water source is <br /> 100% groundwater. The State Water Resource Control Board (SWRCB) Division of <br /> Drinking Water (DDW) is responsible for the regulation of contaminants in drinking <br /> water. Regulated contaminants in drinking water are called maximum contaminant <br /> levels (MCLS) and must be met by Zone 7 and the City. The City annually prepares a <br /> consumer confidence report (CCR) that is provided to each customer and reports the <br /> level of regulated contaminants detected in the drinking water and if any violations <br /> occurred. The City's 2018 CCR shows that all water quality testing met applicable <br /> standards without any violations. The DDW will also occasionally establish health-based <br /> advisory levels for certain non-regulated chemicals in drinking water that lack MCLs. <br /> The advisory levels include Notification Levels which are concentrations that have been <br /> determined to not pose a significant health risk but warrant notification to governing <br /> bodies, and Response Levels which are concentrations where treatment or removal of <br /> the water source is recommended to reduce public exposure to the contaminant. <br /> Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) are non- <br /> regulated human-made substances of emerging concern that are part of a larger group <br /> of chemicals referred to as PFAS. PFAS have been used extensively in surface coating <br /> protectant formulations due to their unique ability to repel oil, grease, and water. Major <br /> applications have included protectants for paper/cardboard packaging, carpets, leather <br /> products, and textiles, nonstick coatings on cookware, and in firefighting foams. PFOA <br /> and PFOS have been phased out of production by manufacturers in the United States; <br /> however, replacement substances have been developed within the PFAS family that <br /> appear to behave in a similar toxicological manner. Exposure to unsafe levels of PFOA <br /> and PFOS over a period of time may result in adverse health effects including <br /> developmental effects to fetuses during pregnancy, cancer, liver effects, immune <br /> effects, thyroid effects, and cholesterol changes. PFAS are primarily introduced into the <br /> body by the ingestion of contaminated food or liquid (including water). The EPA and <br /> SWRCB have identified fire training /fire response sites (such as airports), industrial <br /> sites, landfills, and wastewater treatment plants as major sources of PFAS. <br /> Groundwater contamination with PFAS has typically been associated with these <br />